100 Diseases or Uses of AIM Global’s C 24/7
Hereunder is the list of 100 diseases that C24/7 can help remedy, through providing the daily essentials, anti-oxidants and other nutrients the body needs on a daily basis. To learn more about the disease, please click the name.
- Acute and Chronic Diarrhea
- Allergic Rhinitis
- Atopic Dermatitis
- Atrophic Vaginitis
- Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
- Bone Fracture
- Brain Tumor
- Bronchial Asthma
- Cancer and Tumor Formation
- Cervical Ulcer
- Colon Prolapsed and Bowel Pockets
- Deafness of Old Age
- Diabetes-Insulin Dependent Type I
- Diabetes Mellitus Type II
- Enteritis -Swelling of Intestines
- Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
- Heart Disease and Complication
- Kidney Disease
- Liver Cirrhosis
- Low Sperm Count
- Mascular Degeneration
- Mental Tiredness
- Muscle and Nerve Pain
- Muscular Dystrophy
- Neuro Muscular Disorder
- Patients with Debilitating Disease
- Piles (Hemorrhoids External)
- Piles After Operation
- Pre Menopausal Syndrome
- Prolapse of the Stomach
- Rectal Tumor
- Respiratory Infection
- Rheumatic Heart Disease
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Shortness of Breath on Children
- Skin Rash
- Skin Ulcer
- Sore Eyes
- Spinal Disease
- Systemic Lupus Erthromatosis
- Thyroid Problem
- Toxic Blood and Acidosis
- Toxins in the Body
- Trochomonas Vaginilis
- Ulcer Colitis
- Underweight and Malnutrition
- Varicose Veins
- Weakness of Lower Leg
Diarrhea means that you have loose, watery stools more than three times in one day. You may also have cramps, bloating, nausea and an urgent need to have a bowel movement.
Causes of diarrhea include bacteria, viruses or parasites, certain medicines, food intolerances and diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine or colon. In many cases, no cause can be found.
Although usually not harmful, diarrhea can become dangerous or signal a more serious problem. You should talk to your doctor if you have a strong pain in your abdomen or rectum, a fever, blood in your stools, severe diarrhea for more than three days or symptoms of dehydration. If your child has diarrhea, do not hesitate to call the doctor for advice. Diarrhea can be dangerous in children.
An allergy is a reaction of your immune system to something that does not bother most other people. People who have allergies often are sensitive to more than one thing. Substances that often cause reactions are:
How do you get allergies?
Scientists think both genes and the environment have something to do with it. Normally, your immune system fights germs. It is your body’s defense system. In most allergic reactions, however, it is responding to a false alarm.
Allergies can cause a runny nose, sneezing, itching, rashes, swelling or asthma. Symptoms vary. Although allergies can make you feel bad, they usually won’t kill you. However, a severe reaction called anaphylaxis is life-threatening.
Symptoms can include
Sneezing, often with a runny or clogged nose
Coughing and postnasal drip
Itching eyes, nose and throat
Dark circles under the eyes
Taking medicines, using nasal sprays and rinsing out your nose can relieve symptoms. Allergy shots can help make you less sensitive to pollen and provide long-term relief.
Amenorrhea is the medical term for the absence of menstrual periods, either on a permanent or temporary basis. Amenorrhea can be classified as primary or secondary. In primary amenorrhea, menstrual periods have never begun (by age 16), whereas secondary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or a time period of more than six months in a woman who was previously menstruating.
The menstrual cycle can be influenced by many internal factors such as transient changes in hormonal levels, stress, and illness, as well as external or environmental factors. Missing one menstrual period is rarely a sign of a serious problem or an underlying medical condition, but amenorrhea of longer duration may signal the presence of a disease or chronic condition.
What causes amenorrhea?
The normal menstrual cycle occurs because of changing levels of hormones made and secreted by the ovaries. The ovaries respond to hormonal signals from the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain, which is, in turn, controlled by hormones produced in the hypothalamus of the brain. Disorders that affect any component of this regulatory cycle can lead to amenorrhea. However, a common cause of amenorrhea in young females sometimes overlooked or misunderstood by the individual and others, is an undiagnosed pregnancy. Amenorrhea in pregnancy is a normal physiological function. Occasionally, the same underlying problem can cause or contribute to either primary or secondary amenorrhea. For example, hypothalamic problems, anorexia or extreme exercise can play a major role in causing amenorrhea depending on the age of the person and if she has experienced menarche.
If you have anemia, your blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of your body. The most common cause of anemia is not having enough iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that gives the red color to blood. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
Your iron might be too low because of
Colon polyps or colon cancer
A diet that does not have enough iron, folic acid or vitamin B 12
Blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, or cancer
Aplastic anemia, a condition that can be inherited or acquired
Anemia can make you feel weak, cold, dizzy and irritable. It is confirmed with a blood test. Treatment depends on the kind of anemia you have.
Eczema is a term for several different types of skin swelling. Eczema is also calleddermatitis. It is not dangerous, but most types cause red, swollen and itchy skin. Factors that can cause eczema include other diseases, irritating substances, allergies and your genetic makeup. Eczema is not contagious.
The most common type of eczema is atopic dermatitis. It is an allergic condition that makes your skin dry and itchy. It is most common in babies and children.
Eczema is a chronic disease. You can prevent some types of eczema by avoiding irritants, stress, and the things you are allergic to.
Vaginal dryness is present when the tissues of the vagina are no longer well-lubricated and healthy. When these symptoms are caused by a decreased amount of estrogen in a woman’s body, this problem is called atrophic vaginitis.
Atrophic vaginitis is caused by a decrease in estrogen.
Estrogen keeps the tissues of the vagina lubricated and healthy. Normally, the lining of the vagina makes a clear, lubricating fluid. This fluid makes sexual intercourse more comfortable. It also helps decrease vaginal dryness.
If estrogen levels drop off, the vaginal tissue shrinks and becomes thinner. This causes dryness and inflammation.
Estrogen levels normally drop after menopause. The following may also cause estrogen levels to drop:
Medicines or hormones used in the treatment of breast cancer, endometriosis, fibroids, or infertility.
Surgery to remove the ovaries
Radiation treatment to the pelvic area
Severe stress, depression, or intense exercise.
Some women develop this problem right after childbirth or while breastfeeding. Estrogen levels are lower at these times.
The vagina can also become further irritated from soaps, laundry detergents, lotions, perfumes, or douches. Certain medicines, smoking, tampons, and condoms may also cause or worsen vaginal dryness.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called benign enlargement of the prostate (BEP), adenofibromyomatous hyperplasia and benign prostatic hypertrophy, is an increase in size of the prostate.
BPH involves hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of large, fairly discrete nodules in the periurethral region of the prostate. When sufficiently large, the nodules compress the urethral canal to cause partial, or sometimes virtually complete, obstruction of the urethra, which interferes with the normal flow of urine. It leads to symptoms of urinary hesitancy, frequent urination, dysuria (painful urination), increased risk of urinary tract infections, and urinary retention. Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated in these patients because of increased organ volume and inflammation due to urinary tract infections, BPH does not lead to cancer or increase the risk of cancer.
BPH involves hyperplasia (an increase in the number of cells) rather than hypertrophy (a growth in the size of individual cells), but the two terms are often used interchangeably, even amongst urologists.
Adenomatous prostatic growth is believed to begin at approximately age 30 years. An estimated 50% of men have histologic evidence of BPH by age 50 years and 75% by age 80 years; in 40–50% of these men, BPH becomes clinically significant.
Beriberi is a disease in which the body does not have enough thiamine (vitamin B1).
There are two major types of beriberi:
Wet beriberi affects the cardiovascular system.
Dry beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome affect the nervous system.
Beriberi is rare in the United States because most foods are now vitamin enriched. If you eat a normal, healthy diet, you should get enough thiamine. Today, beriberi occurs mostly in patients who abuse alcohol. Drinking heavily can lead to poor nutrition, and excess alcohol makes it harder for the body to absorb and store thiamine.
A rare condition known as genetic beriberi is inherited (passed down through families). People with genetic beriberi lose the ability to absorb thiamine from foods. This can happen slowly over time and symptoms occur when the person is an adult. However, because doctors may not consider beriberi in nonalcoholics, this diagnosis is often missed.
Beriberi can occur in breast-fed infants when the mother’s body is lacking in thiamine. The condition can also affect infants who are fed unusual formulas that don’t have enough thiamine.
Getting dialysis and taking high doses of diuretics raise your risk of beriberi.
Asthma is a chronic disease that affects your airways. Your airways are tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs. If you have asthma, the inside walls of your airways become sore and swollen. That makes them very sensitive, and they may react strongly to things that you are allergic to or find irritating. When your airways react, they get narrower and your lungs get less air.
Symptoms of asthma include:
Coughing, especially early in the morning or at night
Shortness of breath
Not all people who have asthma have these symptoms. Having these symptoms doesn’t always mean that you have asthma. Your doctor will diagnose asthma based on lung function tests, your medical history, and a physical exam. You may also have allergy tests.
When your asthma symptoms become worse than usual, it’s called an asthma attack. Severe asthma attacks may require emergency care, and they can be fatal.
Asthma is treated with two kinds of medicines: quick-relief medicines to stop asthma symptoms and long-term control medicines to prevent symptoms.
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It causes a cough that often brings up mucus, as well as shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic.
The same viruses that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people cough, or through physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis, but not as often as viruses.
Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough can last for several weeks after the infection is gone. If you think you have acute bronchitis, see your healthcare provider.
Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or acetaminophen to treat fever. A humidifier or steam can also help. You may need inhaled medicine to open your airways if you are wheezing. You probably do not need antibiotics. They don’t work against viruses – the most common cause of acute bronchitis. If your healthcare provider thinks you have a bacterial infection, he or she may prescribe antibiotics.
A burn is damage to your body’s tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or radiation. Scalds from hot liquids and steam, building fires and flammable liquids and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by breathing smoke.
There are three types of burns:
First-degree burns damage only the outer layer of skin
Second-degree burns damage the outer layer and the layer underneath
Third-degree burns damage or destroy the deepest layer of skin and tissues underneath
Burns can cause swelling, blistering, scarring and, in serious cases, shock and even death. They also can lead to infections because they damage your skin’s protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of the burn, how deep it is, and how much of the body it covers. Antibiotic creams can prevent or treat infections. For more serious burns, treatment may be needed to clean the wound, replace the skin, and make sure the patient has enough fluids and nutrition.
Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when you don’t need them, and old cells don’t die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren’t cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body.
Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in your eye. It affects your vision. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.
A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. It cannot spread from one eye to the other. Common symptoms are:
Colors that seem faded
Glare – headlights, lamps or sunlight may seem too bright. You may also see a halo around lights.
Not being able to see well at night
Frequent prescription changes in your eye wear
Cataracts usually develop slowly. New glasses, brighter lighting, anti-glare sunglasses or magnifying lenses can help at first. Surgery is also an option. It involves removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial lens. Wearing sunglasses and a hat with a brim to block ultraviolet sunlight may help to delay cataracts.
Popularly known as the wound in the cervix known (erezyone cervicitis) is a common gynecological diseases. Cervicitis.Institution meaning of the word chronic, inflammatory disease of the cervix continuously. Wound (wound cervical), erosion i.e. infected tissue around the cervical region.
The wounds of the cervix (the wound in the cervix) (erezyone cervicitis) is, why?
1-often depending gonorrhea (clap) klamidia, trichomoniasis and HPV infections, the
Bookmark and traumatic sex with two columns,
3-A of the condom and chemical stored cervix placed
Not for 4-on, cervical tears repaired lost
For these reasons, the cervical squamous epithelium (skin) layers of endocervical lost causes (cervical internal channel) that the canal. To change the field This region appears more red blood too. And this is the most affected tissue infection, cervical cords (cervicitis erezyone injury). Sometimes the intestine epithelium (skin) cause the infected tissue stroma disappeared. This is known as cervical ulcers. This causes other problems due to the formation of cysts in the cervix caused naboti. Because endocervical cysts, inflammation of the repair process of the gland ducts Naboti (epithelialization) narrow. Therefore, endocrine glands (mucus) and bosalamaz fluid. Rear Göllenerek naboti produces cysts.
What are the symptoms of cervical injury?
1-Vaginal Discharge: yellow, white, pasty and sticky. This changes consistency discharge current during ovulation is different.
Bleeding or spotting after 2-Relationship
3-intermediate pieces no bleeding: excessive swelling and edema of the cervical epithelium, depending on the internal channel would be increased fragility and easily traumatized. This leads vaginal bleeding spots on the end of the shower, or sex.
4-shot lower back pain coccyx
5 burning urination, frequent urination and urinary retention is difficult. This is due to infection of the cervix, lymph yayilmasindandir (by neighborhood) of the urinary bladder. Honeymoon appear Honeymoon cystitis is for these reasons. Frequent intercourse and extremely alert and trauma to the mouth of the uterus, resulting in the formation of urinary problems.
6 Infertility Infertility causes by 10%, primarily due to the factors listed in the mouth of the uterus, cervix and wounds. The infection and changes in the structure of the sperm (male seed) prevents passage of the uterus.
What is the diagnosis of cervical lesions?
It can be easily diagnosed by the appearance of a regular gynecological exam. Before starting treatment should be taken (malignant) malicious smear to check for an event that slept. Biopsy suspicious areas can occur. Anecdotal cases of doubt, colposcopy or positive HPV status should be monitored vascular and biopsy. Treatment of passing the test, you must wait for the results.
What should I do to prevent cervical injury?
1-suspect and have sex with people you do not know. Particularly gonorrhea (clap) men
2-At birth, the cervix should not break the waiting period. When medical personnel (doctor or midwife) is a big responsibility. Even if you need to repair broken, bleeding occurs in the cervix. Meanwhile, some of our patients have torn cervix, where it is said that during the rise to the formation of the head, vagina and perineum during childbirth (in the anus to the vaginal area) to cut (episiotomy) facilitate really meant “I think the teachers say built in memory of the birth.” should also be noted that this is not the place over the mouth of the uterus.
Necessarily the best 3-neglected infections should be treated during the acute phase.
4 buffer, chemicals should not be used.
5-vaginal washing with water and soap. The normal vaginal pH, because this process (acid) for opportunistic infections broke make referrals to germs.
6-HPV vaccines: HPV vaccines to do between the ages of 9-26. Association with recurring injuries and the risk of cancer in women after 26 years olaraktan vaccination is recommended to delete.
Your gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ under your liver. It stores bile, a fluid made by your liver to digest fat. As your stomach and intestines digest food, your gallbladder releases bile through a tube called the common bile duct. The duct connects your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine.
Your gallbladder is most likely to give you trouble if something blocks the flow of bile through the bile ducts. That is usually a gallstone. Gallstones form when substances in bile harden. Gallstone attacks usually happen after you eat. Signs of a gallstone attack may include nausea, vomiting, or pain in the abdomen, back, or just under the right arm.
Gallstones are most common among older adults, women, overweight people, Native Americans and Mexican Americans.
Gallstones are often found during imaging tests for other health conditions. If you do not have symptoms, you usually do not need treatment. The most common treatment is removal of the gallbladder. Fortunately, you can live without a gallbladder. Bile has other ways to reach your small intestine.
Also called: Ulcerative Colitis, Distal colitis, Pancolitis, Ulcerative proctitis
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining of the rectum and colon. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease.
UC can happen at any age, but it usually starts between the ages of 15 and 30. It tends to run in families. The most common symptoms are pain in the abdomen and blood or pus in diarrhea. Other symptoms may include:L
Loss of appetite
Bleeding from the rectum
Sores on the skin
Growth failure in children
About half of people with UC have mild symptoms.
Doctors use blood tests, stool tests, colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, and imaging tests to diagnose UC. Several types of drugs can help control it. Some people have long periods of remission, when they are free of symptoms. In severe cases, doctors must remove the colon.
Diverticulosis occurs when small defects in the muscle of the wall of the large intestine or colon allow small pockets or pouches (diverticula) to form. Diverticulitis is infection or inflammation of these abnormal pouches. Together, these conditions are called diverticular disease.
Despite having some symptoms in common, diverticular disease isn’t associated with more serious conditions, such as bowel cancer. However, diverticulitis is often a medical emergency, requiring immediate medical attention and, frequently, admission to hospital. Mild attacks can be treated at home, but should always be assessed promptly.
Causes of diverticular disease
Diverticulosis is extremely common. Old age and diet may be the most important risk factors. More than half of all adults over the age of 70 have the condition. Most of these people are unaware that they have diverticulosis.
Diverticulosis is less common in people under 50. Studies appear to show that diverticulosis became more common in the 20th century. It is also more common in ‘Western’ nations including North America, Europe and Australia. It is less common in Asia and very uncommon in Africa.
Discovery of these facts led to the theory that the low-fibre diet common in Western nations may be important. Animal studies show that this theory is possible. It has also been shown that vegetarians less commonly develop diverticulosis. Exactly how a low-fibre diet may cause diverticulosis is not known.
There may also be genetic causes. It is interesting that Western people develop diverticulosis in the last third of the colon, while people in Asian countries – such as Japan, Taiwan and Singapore – generally develop diverticulosis in the first section of the colon. In the Japanese population living in Hawaii, the risk of diverticulosis is higher than those living in Japan. However, when diverticulosis develops in these people, it is still in the ‘Japanese’ location – the first third of the colon.
Diverticulitis seems to occur when a small puncture develops in the diverticular wall. This causes a small infection to develop, often forming an abscess.
Symptoms of diverticulosis
Diverticulosis is usually asymptomatic (has no symptoms). However, when many diverticula (pouches) are present, the normal smooth working of the bowel can be affected. This may cause a range of symptoms including:
Abdominal pain and bloating
Constipation and diarrhoea
Blood in the faeces – this is usually minor, but bleeding can sometimes be heavy if a diverticulum gets inflamed or is near a blood vessel
Anaemia from repeated bleeding may occur.
Many of these symptoms are similar to those of bowel cancer. Diverticulosis is more common, so these symptoms may be more likely to be due to diverticulosis than cancer. However, a specialist will usually assess these symptoms – your doctor will refer you.
Symptoms of diverticulitis
Symptoms of diverticulitis include:
Sharp pain, often located at a specific point – for example, in the lower left half of the abdomen
Distension (bloating) of the abdomen
Nausea and vomiting.
Conjunctivitis is the medical name for pink eye. It involves inflammation of the outer layer of the eye and inside of the eyelid. It can cause swelling, itching, burning, discharge, and redness.
Bacterial or viral infection
Substances that cause irritation
Contact lens products, eye drops, or eye ointments
Pinkeye usually does not affect vision. Infectious pink eye can easily spread from one person to another. The infection will clear in most cases without medical care, but bacterial pinkeye needs treatment with antibiotic eye drops or ointment.
Constipation means that a person has three or fewer bowel movements in a week. The stool can be hard and dry. Sometimes it is painful to pass. At one time or another, almost everyone gets constipated. In most cases, it lasts a short time and is not serious.
There are many things you can do to prevent constipation. They include:
Eating more fruits, vegetables and grains, which are high in fiber
Drinking plenty of water and other liquids
Getting enough exercise
Taking time to have a bowel movement when you need to
Using laxatives only if your doctor says you should
Asking your doctor if medicines you take may cause constipation
It’s not important that you have a bowel movement every day. If your bowel habits change, however, check with your doctor.
Coughing is a reflex that keeps your throat and airways clear. Although it can be annoying, coughing helps your body heal or protect itself. Coughs can be either acute or chronic. Acute coughs begin suddenly and usually last no more than 2 to 3 weeks. Acute coughs are the kind you most often get with a cold, flu, or acute bronchitis. Chronic coughs last longer than 2 to 3 weeks. Causes of chronic cough include:
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
Throat disorders, such as croup in young children
Water can help ease your cough – whether you drink it or add it to the air with a steamy shower or vaporizer. If you have a cold or the flu, antihistamines may work better than non-prescription cough medicines. Children under four should not have cough medicine. For children over four, use caution and read labels carefully.
A cyst is a sac-like pocket of tissue that contains fluid, air, or other substances. Cysts can grow almost anywhere in your body or on your skin.
A cyst can appear as a bump on your skin. It may also feel like a small lump if it is growing just under your skin.
Some cysts grow deep inside your body where you cannot feel them. However, they may cause other symptoms. For example, ovarian cysts can cause hormonal problems. Polycystic kidney disease can affect kidney function.
Cysts usually grow slowly and have a smooth surface. They can be tiny or very large. Most cysts are not painful. They usually do not cause problems unless they are:
growing in a sensitive area
affecting the function of an organ
Why Do Cysts Form?
Cysts form for a number of different reasons. They can be caused by:
blockages in ducts
The exact cause depends on the type of cyst.
Types of Cysts
There are hundreds of different types of cysts.
Cysts can grow almost anywhere in your body.
Some cysts occur as part of another condition, such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD) or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some of the more common types of cysts include:
These are small, benign bumps filled with an oily substance called sebum. They are also known as epidermoid cysts.
Sebaceous cysts often form within hair follicles. They can also be caused by ruptured sebaceous glands. These are the glands that make oil for your skin and hair.
In rare cases, sebaceous cysts can be caused by an inherited condition called Gardner’s syndrome.
These benign cysts usually form on your wrist or hand. However, they can also develop on your feet. The reason why they form is not known.
Ganglion cysts tend to occur along a tendon sheath. They are more common in women than in men.
Ovarian cysts form when the follicle that normally releases an egg does not open. This causes fluid to build up and form a cyst. These cysts occur most often between the onset of puberty and menopause. They are usually found during pelvic exams.
Ovarian cysts are associated with an increased risk of cancer when they occur after menopause.
Benign cysts can develop in your breasts when your milk ducts are blocked. They commonly occur in women in their thirties and forties. They can cause pain or tenderness in the affected area.
Chalazia are benign cysts that occur on your eyelids when the oil gland duct is blocked. These cysts can cause tenderness, light sensitivity, and painful swelling. If they get too big, they can cause vision problems.
These cysts form near the top of the buttocks. They are usually filled with skin debris, hair, and other matter.
Pilonidal cysts occur more often in men than in women. They can develop when loose hairs become embedded in your skin. Chronic infections in these cysts might increase your risk of a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. (MayoClinic)
When to See Your Doctor
Schedule an appointment with your doctor if your cyst becomes very painful or red. This could be the sign of a rupture or infection.
A doctor should check your cyst even if it is not causing any pain or other problems. Abnormal growths can be a sign of cancer. Therefore, your doctor might want to remove a tissue sample for testing.
In some cases, cysts go away on their own. Putting a warm compress on a cyst can speed up the healing process by helping it drain.
You should never try to squeeze or pop a cyst on your own. This can lead to infection.
Common methods of medical treatment for cysts include:
draining the cyst using a needle: This is done if a cyst becomes infected or ruptures. The fluids or other matter in the cyst will be removed.
using anti-inflammatory medications: Cortisone injections can reduce inflammation in a cyst.
surgical removal of the cyst: This may be used when draining does not work. Hard-to-reach internal cysts can be surgically removed instead of drained if treatment is needed.
It’s frustrating to be unable to hear well enough to enjoy talking with friends or family. Hearing disorders make it hard, but not impossible, to hear. They can often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all.
What causes hearing loss? Some possibilities are:
Diseases such as ear infections and meningitis
Long-term exposure to loud noise
There are two main types of hearing loss. One happens when your inner ear or auditory nerve is damaged. This type is usually permanent. The other kind happens when sound waves cannot reach your inner ear. Earwax build-up, fluid, or a punctured eardrum can cause it. Treatment or surgery can often reverse this kind of hearing loss.
Untreated, hearing problems can get worse. If you have trouble hearing, you can get help. Possible treatments include hearing aids, cochlear implants, special training, certain medicines, and surgery.
Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood.
Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes.
A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.
Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth.
Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults but can appear at any age. Symptoms may include:
Being very thirsty
Feeling very hungry or tired
Losing weight without trying
Having sores that heal slowly
Having dry, itchy skin
Losing the feeling in your feet or having tingling in your feet
Having blurry eyesight
A blood test can show if you have diabetes. If you do, you will need to take insulin for the rest of your life.
Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth.
You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having prediabetes also increases your risk. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes.
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes appear slowly. Some people do not notice symptoms at all. The symptoms can include:
Being very thirsty
Feeling very hungry or tired
Losing weight without trying
Having sores that heal slowly
Having blurry eyesight
A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Many people can manage their diabetes through healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing. Some people also need to take diabetes medicines.
Dysmenorrhea is the medical term for the painful cramps that may occur immediately before or during the menstrual period. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary dysmenorrhea and secondary dysmenorrhea.
Primary dysmenorrhea is another name for common menstrual cramps. Cramps usually begin one to two years after a woman starts getting her period. Pain usually is felt in the lower abdomen or back. They can be mild to severe. Common menstrual cramps often start shortly before or at the onset of the period and continue one to three days. They usually become less painful as a woman ages and may stop entirely after the woman has her first baby.
Secondary dysmenorrhea is pain caused by a disorder in the woman’s reproductive organs. These cramps usually begin earlier in the menstrual cycle and last longer than common menstrual cramps.
What Are the Symptoms of Menstrual Cramps?
The symptoms of menstrual cramps include:
Aching pain in the abdomen (Pain can be severe at times.)
Feeling of pressure in the abdomen
Pain in the hips, lower back, and inner thighs
When cramps are severe, symptoms may include:
Upset stomach, sometimes with vomiting
What Causes Common Menstrual Cramps?
Menstrual cramps are caused by contractions in the uterus, which is a muscle. The uterus, the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a baby grows, contracts throughout a woman’s menstrual cycle. If the uterus contracts too strongly, it can press against nearby blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen to the muscle tissue of the uterus. Pain results when part of a muscle briefly loses its supply of oxygen.
Nearly everyone has had indigestion at one time. It’s a feeling of discomfort or a burning feeling in your upper abdomen. You may have heartburn or belch and feel bloated. You may also feel nauseated, or even throw up.
You might get indigestion from eating too much or too fast, eating high-fat foods, or eating when you’re stressed. Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, using some medicines, being tired, and having ongoing stress can also cause indigestion or make it worse. Sometimes the cause is a problem with the digestive tract, like an ulcer or GERD.
Avoiding foods and situations that seem to cause it may help. Because indigestion can be a sign of a more serious problem, see your health care provider if it lasts for more than two weeks or if you have severe pain or other symptoms. Your health care provider may use x-rays, lab tests, and an upper endoscopy to diagnose the cause. You may need medicines to treat the symptoms.
Edema means swelling caused by fluid in your body’s tissues. It usually occurs in the feet, ankles and legs, but it can involve your entire body.
Causes of edema include:
Eating too much salt
Liver problems from cirrhosis
Problems with lymph nodes, especially after mastectomy
Standing or walking a lot when the weather is warm
To keep swelling down, your health care provider may recommend keeping your legs raised when sitting, wearing support stockings, limiting how much salt you eat, or taking a medicine called a diuretic – also called a water pill.
Endometriosis is a problem affecting a woman’s uterus – the place where a baby grows when she’s pregnant. Endometriosis is when the kind of tissue that normally lines the uterus grows somewhere else. It can grow on the ovaries, behind the uterus or on the bowels or bladder. Rarely, it grows in other parts of the body.
This “misplaced” tissue can cause pain, infertility, and very heavy periods. The pain is usually in the abdomen, lower back or pelvic areas. Some women have no symptoms at all. Having trouble getting pregnant may be the first sign.
The cause of endometriosis is not known. Pain medicines and hormones often help. Severe cases may need surgery. There are also treatments to improve fertility in women with endometriosis.
Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals. People may have strange sensations and emotions or behave strangely. They may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness.
Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, and abnormal brain development. In many cases, the cause is unknown.
Doctors use brain scans and other tests to diagnose epilepsy. It is important to start treatment right away. There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines can control seizures for most people. When medicines are not working well, surgery or implanted devices such as vagus nerve stimulators may help. Special diets can help some children with epilepsy.
Your esophagus is the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) happens when a muscle at the end of your esophagus does not close properly. This allows stomach contents to leak back, or reflux, into the esophagus and irritate it.
You may feel a burning in the chest or throat called heartburn. Sometimes, you can taste stomach fluid in the back of the mouth. If you have these symptoms more than twice a week, you may have GERD. You can also have GERD without having heartburn. Your symptoms could include a dry cough, asthma symptoms, or trouble swallowing.
Anyone, including infants and children, can have GERD. If not treated, it can lead to more serious health problems. In some cases, you might need medicines or surgery. However, many people can improve their symptoms by:
Avoiding alcohol and spicy, fatty or acidic foods that trigger heartburn
Eating smaller meals
Not eating close to bedtime
Losing weight if needed
Wearing loose-fitting clothes
Gingivitis, also generally called gum disease or periodontal disease, begins with bacterial growth in your mouth and may end — if not properly treated — with tooth loss due to destruction of the tissue that surrounds your teeth.
What’s the Difference Between Gingivitis and Periodontitis?
Gingivitis (gum inflammation) usually precedes periodontitis (gum disease). However, it is important to know that not all gingivitis progresses to periodontitis.
In the early stage of gingivitis, bacteria in plaque build up, causing the gums to become inflamed and to easily bleed during tooth brushing. Although the gums may be irritated, the teeth are still firmly planted in their sockets. No irreversible bone or other tissue damage has occurred at this stage.
When gingivitis is left untreated, it can advance to periodontitis. In a person with periodontitis, the inner layer of the gum and bone pull away from the teeth and form pockets. These small spaces between teeth and gums collect debris and can become infected. The body’s immune system fights the bacteria as the plaque spreads and grows below the gum line.
What Causes Gum Disease?
Plaque is the primary cause of gum disease. However, other factors can contribute to periodontal disease. These include:
Hormonal changes, such as those occurring during pregnancy, puberty, menopause, and monthly menstruation, make gums more sensitive, which makes it easier for gingivitis to develop.
Illnesses may affect the condition of your gums. This includes diseases such as cancer or HIV that interfere with the immune system. Because diabetes affects the body’s ability to use blood sugar, patients with this disease are at higher risk of developing infections, including periodontal disease and cavities.
Medications can affect oral health, because some lessen the flow of saliva, which has a protective effect on teeth and gums. Some drugs, such as the anticonvulsant medication Dilantin and the anti-angina drug Procardia and Adalat, can cause abnormal growth of gum tissue.
Bad habits such as smoking make it harder for gum tissue to repair itself.
Poor oral hygiene habits such as not brushing and flossing on a daily basis, make it easier for gingivitis to develop.
Family history of dental disease can be a contributing factor for the development of gingivitis.
What Are the Symptoms of Gum Disease?
Gum disease may progress painlessly, producing few obvious signs, even in the late stages of the disease. Although the symptoms of periodontal disease often are subtle, the condition is not entirely without warning signs. Certain symptoms may point to some form of the disease. The symptoms of gum disease include:
Gums that bleed during and after tooth brushing
Red, swollen, or tender gums
Persistent bad breath or bad taste in the mouth
Formation of deep pockets between teeth and gums
Loose or shifting teeth
Changes in the way teeth fit together upon biting down, or in the fit of partial dentures.
Even if you don’t notice any symptoms, you may still have some degree of gum disease. In some people, gum disease may affect only certain teeth, such as the molars. Only a dentist or a periodontist can recognize and determine the progression of gum disease.
Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye’s optic nerve. It is a leading cause of blindness in the United States. It usually happens when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises, damaging the optic nerve. Often there are no symptoms at first. Without treatment, people with glaucoma will slowly lose their peripheral, or side vision. They seem to be looking through a tunnel. Over time, straight-ahead vision may decrease until no vision remains.
A comprehensive eye exam can tell if you have glaucoma. People at risk should get eye exams at least every two years. They include:
African Americans over age 40
People over age 60, especially Mexican Americans
People with a family history of glaucoma
There is no cure, but glaucoma can usually be controlled. Early treatment can help protect your eyes against vision loss. Treatments usually include prescription eyedrops and/or surgery.
A simple goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is usually not cancer.
There are different kinds of goiters:
A simple goiter can occur without a known reason. It can occur when the thyroid gland is not able to make enough thyroid hormone to meet the body’s needs. This can be due to a lack of iodine in a person’s diet. To make up for the shortage of thyroid hormone, the thyroid gland grows larger.
Toxic nodular goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland that has a small, rounded growth or many growths called nodules. One or more of these nodules produce too much thyroid hormone.
The body needs iodine to produce thyroid hormone:
Simple goiters may occur in people who live in areas where the soil and water do not have enough iodine. People in these areas might not get enough iodine in their diet.
The use of iodized salt in many food products in the United States prevents a lack of iodine in the diet.
In many cases of simple goiter, the cause is unknown. Other than a lack of iodine, other factors that may lead to the condition include:
Certain medicines (lithium, amiodarone)
Certain foods (soy, peanuts, vegetables in the broccoli and cabbage family)
Simple goiters are also more common in:
Persons over age 40
People with a family history of goiter
The main symptom is an enlarged thyroid gland. The size may range from a single small nodule to a large neck lump.
Some people with a simple goiter may have symptoms of an underactive thyroid gland.
In rare cases, an enlarged thyroid can put pressure on the windpipe (trachea) and food tube (esophagus). This can lead to:
Breathing difficulties (with very large goiters), especially when lying on the back
Swallowing difficulties, especially with solid food
Gout is a common, painful form of arthritis. It causes swollen, red, hot and stiff joints.
Gout happens when uric acid builds up in your body. Uric acid comes from the breakdown of substances called purines. Purines are in your body’s tissues and in foods, such as liver, dried beans and peas, and anchovies. Normally, uric acid dissolves in the blood. It passes through the kidneys and out of the body in urine. But sometimes uric acid can build up and form needle-like crystals. When they form in your joints, it is very painful. The crystals can also cause kidney stones.
Often, gout first attacks your big toe. It can also attack ankles, heels, knees, wrists, fingers, and elbows. At first, gout attacks usually get better in days. Eventually, attacks last longer and happen more often.
You are more likely to get gout if you:
Are a man
Have family member with gout
Eat too many foods rich in purines
Gout can be hard to diagnose. Your doctor may take a sample of fluid from an inflamed joint to look for crystals. You can treat gout with medicines.
Pseudogout has similar symptoms and is sometimes confused with gout. However, it is caused by calcium phosphate, not uric acid.
There are many reasons why you might have bad breath. You can get it if you don’t brush and floss regularly. Bacteria that build up in your mouth and between your teeth produce the bad odor. Other problems in your mouth, such as gum disease, dry mouth or cavities, may also cause it. Sinusitis or problems with your nose may be to blame. You can also have bad breath if you eat some foods, like raw onions, garlic or cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad aroma. Some diseases and medicines are associated with a specific breath odor.
Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad breath. Mouthwashes, mints or chewing gum may make your breath fresher. If you have an underlying disorder, treating it may help eliminate the breath odor.
If you’re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. It is also a major cause of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease and happens slowly over time. It’s the major reason people have heart attacks.
Other kinds of heart problems may happen to the valves in the heart, or the heart may not pump well and cause heart failure. Some people are born with heart disease.
You can help reduce your risk of heart disease by taking steps to control factors that put you at greater risk:
Control your blood pressure
Lower your cholesterol
Get enough exercise
Also called: Viral hepatitis
Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver.
Viruses cause most cases of hepatitis. The type of hepatitis is named for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Drug or alcohol use can also cause hepatitis. In other cases, your body mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the liver.
Some people who have hepatitis have no symptoms. Others may have:
Loss of appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Dark-colored urine and pale bowel movements
Jaundice, yellowing of skin and eyes
Some forms of hepatitis are mild, and others can be serious. Some can lead to scarring, called cirrhosis, or to liver cancer.
Sometimes hepatitis goes away by itself. If it does not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all parts of the body. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much in your blood, it can combine with other substances in the blood and stick to the walls of your arteries. This is called plaque. Plaque can narrow your arteries or even block them.
High levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase your risk of heart disease. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older. There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high blood cholesterol, but it can be detected with a blood test. You are likely to have high cholesterol if members of your family have it, if you are overweight or if you eat a lot of fatty foods.
You can lower your cholesterol by exercising more and eating more fruits and vegetables. You also may need to take medicine to lower your cholesterol.
Lipid is the scientific term for fats in the blood. At proper levels, lipids perform important functions in your body, but can cause health problems if they are present in excess. The term hyperlipidemia means high lipid levels. Hyperlipidemia includes several conditions, but it usually means that you have high cholesterol and high triglyceride levels.
High lipid levels can speed up a process called atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Your arteries are normally smooth and unobstructed on the inside, but as you age, a sticky substance called plaque forms in the walls of your arteries. Plaque is made of lipids and other materials circulating in your blood. As more plaque builds up, your arteries can narrow and stiffen. Eventually, enough plaque may build up to reduce blood flow through your arteries.
Atherosclerosis increases your risk of heart disease, stroke, and other vascular diseases. Fortunately, you may be able to reduce high lipid levels and, therefore, prevent or slow the progression of atherosclerosis. Lifestyle changes like exercising and eating a healthy diet can also lower your lipid levels and are often the first step in treatment.
What are the symptoms?
Hyperlipidemia by itself does not cause any symptoms.
What causes hyperlipidemia?
Most hyperlipidemia is caused by lifestyle habits or treatable medical conditions. Lifestyle contributors include obesity, not exercising, and smoking. Conditions that cause hyperlipidemia include diabetes, kidney disease, pregnancy, and an underactive thyroid gland.
You can also inherit hyperlipidemia. The cause may be genetic if you have a normal body weight and other members of your family have hyperlipidemia.
You have a greater chance of developing hyperlipidemia if you are a man older than age 45 or a woman older than age 55. If a close relative had early heart disease (father or brother affected before age 55, mother or sister affected before age 65), you also have an increased risk.
Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps out blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is the diastolic pressure.
Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers, the systolic and diastolic pressures. Usually they are written one above or before the other. A reading of
120/80 or lower is normal blood pressure
140/90 or higher is high blood pressure
Between 120 and 139 for the top number, or between 80 and 89 for the bottom number is prehypertension
High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack and kidney failure. You can control high blood pressure through healthy lifestyle habits and taking medicines, if needed.
Immunodeficiency disorders occur when the body’s immune response is reduced or absent.
The immune system is made up of lymphoid tissue in the body, which includes:
Parts of the spleen and gastrointestinal tract
Proteins and cells in the blood are also part of the immune system.
The immune system helps protect the body from harmful substances called antigens. Examples of antigens include bacteria, viruses, toxins, cancer cells, and foreign blood or tissues from another person or species.
People are said to be immunosuppressed when they have an immunodeficiency disorder due to medicines that weaken the immune system (such as corticosteroids). Immunosuppression is also a common side effect of chemotherapy given to treat cancer.
Acquired immunodeficiency may be a complication of diseases such as HIV infection and malnutrition (especially if the person does not eat enough protein). Many cancers may also cause immunodeficiency.
People who have had their spleen removed have an acquired immunodeficiency, and are at higher risk for infection by certain bacteria that the spleen would normally help fight. Patients with diabetes are also at higher risk for certain infections.
As you get older, the immune system becomes less effective. Immune system tissues (especially lymphoid tissue such as the thymus) shrink, and the number and activity of white blood cells drop.
The following conditions and diseases can lead to an immunodeficiency disorder:
Leukocyte adhesion defects
Insomnia is a common sleep disorder. If you have it, you may have trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or both. As a result, you may get too little sleep or have poor-quality sleep. You may not feel refreshed when you wake up.
Symptoms of insomnia include:
Lying awake for a long time before you fall asleep
Sleeping for only short periods
Being awake for much of the night
Feeling as if you haven’t slept at all
Waking up too early
Your doctor will diagnose insomnia based on your medical and sleep histories and a physical exam. He or she also may recommend a sleep study. A sleep study measures how well you sleep and how your body responds to sleep problems. Treatments include lifestyle changes, counseling, and medicines.
Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fists. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. Inside each kidney about a million tiny structures called nephrons filter blood. They remove waste products and extra water, which become urine. The urine flows through tubes called ureters to your bladder, which stores the urine until you go to the bathroom.
Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys unable to remove wastes. Causes can include genetic problems, injuries, or medicines. You are at greater risk for kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a close family member with kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease damages the nephrons slowly over several years. Other kidney problems include:
Your doctor can run tests to find out if you have kidney disease. If your kidneys fail completely, a kidney transplant or dialysis can replace the work your kidneys normally do.
Laryngitis is an inflammation of your voice box (larynx) from overuse, irritation or infection.
Inside the larynx are your vocal cords — two folds of mucous membrane covering muscle and cartilage. Normally, your vocal cords open and close smoothly, forming sounds through their movement and vibration.
But in laryngitis, your vocal cords become inflamed or irritated. This swelling causes distortion of the sounds produced by air passing over them. As a result, your voice sounds hoarse. In some cases of laryngitis, your voice can become almost undetectable.
Laryngitis may be short-lived (acute) or long lasting (chronic). Most cases of laryngitis are triggered by temporary viral infection or vocal strain and aren’t serious. Persistent hoarseness can sometimes signal a more serious underlying medical condition.
Leukorrhea, also spelled leucorrhoea, flow of a whitish, yellowish, or greenish discharge from the vagina of the female that may be normal or that may be a sign of infection. Such discharges may originate from the vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, or, most commonly, the cervix. Leukorrhea may occur during pregnancy and is considered normal when the discharge is thin, white, and relatively odourless.
Physiologic leukorrhea is a normal condition occurring within several months to a year of the onset of menses in adolescent girls and is sometimes present in newborn girls, usually lasting one to two months. However, in many cases, leukorrhea is a sign of infection, especially when the discharge is yellow or green, has an offensive odour, and is accompanied by irritation, itching, pain, or tissue inflammation.
Abnormal leukorrhea may be caused by infections with bacteria, yeast, or other microorganisms. For example, many sexually transmitted diseases, which involve the transmission of viruses or bacteria and include diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, are major causes of leukorrhea. These diseases lead to infection of the cervix, which is indeed one of the most common gynecological disorders. The infection has a tendency to irritate the mucus glands of the cervix, causing them to secrete an excess of mucous mixed with pus.
Leukorrhea is also a sign of vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina), which is often caused by infection with the fungus Candida albicans or by infection with the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Infection with these organisms may give rise to an irritating discharge that is often quite resistant to treatment. A tampon, diaphragm, or other foreign object left too long in the vagina can also cause leukorrhea. Douching is not recommended, since this practice often disturbs the balance of normal vaginal flora, thereby exacerbating infection. A clinical examination to determine the cause of the discharge is necessary.
Treatment is aimed at eliminating the underlying cause and typically involves administration of an antimicrobial agent. See also cervicitis; vulvitis.
Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver. Scar tissue forms because of injury or long-term disease. Scar tissue cannot do what healthy liver tissue does – make protein, help fight infections, clean the blood, help digest food and store energy. Cirrhosis can lead to:
Easy bruising or bleeding, or nosebleeds
Swelling of the abdomen or legs
Extra sensitivity to medicines
High blood pressure in the vein entering the liver
Enlarged veins called varices in the esophagus and stomach. Varices can bleed suddenly.
A small number of people with cirrhosis get liver cancer.
Your doctor will diagnose cirrhosis with blood tests, imaging tests, or a biopsy.
Cirrhosis has many causes. In the United States, the most common causes are chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. Nothing will make the scar tissue disappear, but treating the cause can keep it from getting worse. If too much scar tissue forms, you may need to consider a liver transplant.
Low sperm count means that the fluid (semen) you ejaculate during an orgasm contains fewer sperm than normal. A low sperm count is also called oligospermia (ol-ih-go-SPUR-me-uh). A complete absence of sperm is called azoospermia. Your sperm count is considered lower than normal if you have fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen.
Having a low sperm count decreases the odds that one of your sperm will fertilize your partner’s egg, resulting in pregnancy. Nonetheless, many men who have a low sperm count are still able to father a child.
Macular degeneration, or age-related macular degeneration (AMD), is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 and older. It is a disease that destroys your sharp, central vision. You need central vision to see objects clearly and to do tasks such as reading and driving.
AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that allows you to see fine detail. It does not hurt, but it causes cells in the macula to die. There are two types: wet and dry. Wet AMD happens when abnormal blood vessels grow under the macula. These new blood vessels often leak blood and fluid. Wet AMD damages the macula quickly. Blurred vision is a common early symptom. Dry AMD happens when the light-sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down. Your gradually lose your central vision. A common early symptom is that straight lines appear crooked.
Regular comprehensive eye exams can detect macular degeneration before the disease causes vision loss. Treatment can slow vision loss. It does not restore vision.
If you suffer from migraine headaches, you’re not alone. About 12 percent of the U.S. population gets them. Migraines are recurring attacks of moderate to severe pain. The pain is throbbing or pulsing, and is often on one side of the head. During migraines, people are very sensitive to light and sound. They may also become nauseated and vomit.
Migraine is three times more common in women than in men. Some people can tell when they are about to have a migraine because they see flashing lights or zigzag lines or they temporarily lose their vision.
Many things can trigger a migraine. These include
Lack of food or sleep
Exposure to light
Hormonal changes (in women)
Doctors used to believe migraines were linked to the opening and narrowing of blood vessels in the head. Now they believe the cause is related to genes that control the activity of some brain cells. Medicines can help prevent migraine attacks or help relieve symptoms of attacks when they happen. For many people, treatments to relieve stress can also help.
Musculoskeletal pain affects the bones, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. It can be acute (having a rapid onset with severe symptoms) or chronic (long-lasting). Musculoskeletal pain can be localized in one area, or widespread.
Lower back pain is the most common type of musculoskeletal pain. Other common types include tendonitis, myalgia (muscle pain), and stress fractures.
What are the causes of musculoskeletal pain?
Anyone can experience musculoskeletal pain. It is most often caused by an injury to the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or nerves. This can be caused by jerking movements, car accidents, falls, fractures, sprains, dislocations, and direct blows to the muscle.
Musculoskeletal pain can also be caused by overuse. Pain from overuse affects 33% of adults. Lower back pain from overuse is the most common work-related diagnosis in Western society.
Poor posture or prolonged immobilization can also cause musculoskeletal pain.
What are the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain?
Symptoms of musculoskeletal pain depend on whether the pain is caused by an injury or overuse and whether it is chronic or acute. The symptoms can also differ from person to person.
Common symptoms include:
Localized or widespread pain that can worsen with movement.
Aching or stiffness of the entire body.
The feeling that your muscles have been pulled or overworked
The sensation of “burning” in your muscles
If you have any of these symptoms, you should see your doctor for a thorough examination.
What are the different types of musculoskeletal pain?
Musculoskeletal pain has varying symptoms and causes. Some of the more common types of pain include:
Bone pain: This is usually deep, penetrating, or dull. It most commonly results from injury. It is important to be sure that the pain is not related to a fracture or tumor.
Muscle pain: This is often less intense than bone pain, but it can still be debilitating. Muscle pain can be caused by an injury, an autoimmune reaction, loss of blood flow to the muscle, infection, or a tumor. The pain can also include muscle spasms and cramps.
Tendon and ligament pain: Pains in the tendons or ligaments are often caused by injuries, including include sprains. This type of musculoskeletal pain often becomes worse when the affected area is stretched or moved.
Fibromyalgia: This is a condition that may cause pain in the muscles, tendons, or ligaments. The pain is usually in multiple locations and can be difficult to describe. Fibromyalgia is usually accompanied by other symptoms.
Joint pain: Joint injuries and diseases usually produce a stiff, aching, “arthritic” pain. The pain may range from mild to severe and worsens when moving the joint. The joints may also swell. Joint inflammation (arthritis) is a common cause of pain.
“Tunnel” syndromes: This refers to musculoskeletal disorders that cause pain due to nerve compression. The disorders include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. The pain tends to spread along the path supplied by the nerve and may feel like burning. These disorders are often caused by overuse.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of more than 30 inherited diseases. They all cause muscle weakness and muscle loss. Some forms of MD appear in infancy or childhood. Others may not appear until middle age or later. The different types can vary in whom they affect, which muscles they affect, and what the symptoms are. All forms of MD grow worse as the person’s muscles get weaker. Most people with MD eventually lose the ability to walk.
There is no cure for muscular dystrophy. Treatments can help with the symptoms and prevent complications. They include physical and speech therapy, orthopedic devices, surgery, and medications. Some people with MD have mild cases that worsen slowly. Others cases are disabling and severe.
A uterine myoma is a benign growth of smooth muscle in the wall of the uterus.
Description of Uterine Myomas
A uterine myoma (myoma uteri) is a solid tumor made of fibrous tissue, hence it is often called a ‘fibroid’ tumor. Myomas vary in size and number, are most often slow-growing and usually cause no symptoms. Myomas that do not produce symptoms do not need to be treated. Approximately 25% of myomas will cause symptoms and need medical treatment.
Myomas may grow as a single nodule or in clusters and may range in size from 1 mm to more than 20 cm in diameter. Myomas are the most frequently diagnosed tumor of the female pelvis and the most common reason for a woman to have a hysterectomy. Although they are often referred to as tumors, they are not cancerous.
Heavy and prolonged bleeding
Pelvic pain or pressure
Weight gain or an abnormally enlarged abdomen
Pressure on the bladder or bowel
Pain in the back of the legs
Pain during sexual intercourse
What Causes Myoma?
The cause of myomas has not actually been determined, but most uterine myomas develop in women during their reproductive years. Myomas do not develop before the body begins producing estrogen. Myomas tend to grow very quickly during pregnancy when the body is producing extra estrogen. Once menopause has begun, myomas generally stop growing and can begin to shrink due to the loss of estrogen.
Until recently, hysterectomy was the preferred option for treating symptomatic fibroids. Now, however, there are a number of uterine fibroid treatments including the noninvasive, outpatient MR guided Focused Ultrasound myoma treatment.
A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the urine. It may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Most kidney stones pass out of the body without help from a doctor. But sometimes a stone will not go away. It may get stuck in the urinary tract, block the flow of urine and cause great pain.
The following may be signs of kidney stones that need a doctor’s help:
Extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away
Blood in your urine
Fever and chills
Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy
A burning feeling when you urinate
Your doctor will diagnose a kidney stone with urine, blood, and imaging tests.
If you have a stone that won’t pass on its own, you may need treatment. It can be done with shock waves; with a scope inserted through the tube that carries urine out of the body, called the urethra; or with surgery.
Neuralgia is a sharp, shocking pain that follows the path of a nerve and is due to irritation or damage to the nerve.
Common neuralgias include:
Causes of neuralgia include:
Chronic renal insufficiency
Infections, such as herpes zoster ( shingles), HIV, Lyme disease, and syphilis
Medications such as cisplatin, paclitaxel, or vincristine
Pressure on nerves by nearby bones, ligaments, blood vessels, or tumors
Trauma (including surgery)
In many cases, the cause is unknown.
Postherpetic neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia are the two most common forms of neuralgia. A related but less common neuralgia affects the glossopharyngeal nerve, which provides feeling to the throat.
Neuralgia is more common in elderly people, but it may occur at any age.
Increased sensitivity of the skin along the path of the damaged nerve, so that any touch or pressure is felt as pain
Numbness along the path of the nerve
In the same location each episode
May come and go (intermittent), or be constant, burning pain
May get worse when the area is moved
Weakness or complete paralysis of muscles supplied by the same nerve
Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are the ones you can control, like in your arms and legs. Your nerve cells, also called neurons, send the messages that control these muscles. When the neurons become unhealthy or die, communication between your nervous system and muscles breaks down. As a result, your muscles weaken and waste away. The weakness can lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe.
Examples of neuromuscular disorders include:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Spinal muscular atrophy
Many neuromuscular diseases are genetic, which means they run in families or there is a mutation in your genes. Sometimes, an immune system disorder can cause them. Most of them have no cure. The goal of treatment is to improve symptoms, increase mobility and lengthen life.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your joints. It can occur in any joint, but usually it affects your hands, knees, hips or spine.
Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in your joints. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. Healthy cartilage absorbs the shock of movement. When you lose cartilage, your bones rub together. Over time, this rubbing can permanently damage the joint.
Risk factors for osteoarthritis include:
Injuring a joint
No single test can diagnose osteoarthritis. Most doctors use several methods, including medical history, a physical exam, x-rays, or lab tests.
Treatments include exercise, medicines, and sometimes surgery.
Osteoporosis makes your bones weak and more likely to break. Anyone can develop osteoporosis, but it is common in older women. As many as half of all women and a quarter of men older than 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis.
Risk factors include:
Being small and thin
Having a family history of osteoporosis
Taking certain medicines
Being a white or Asian woman
Having osteopenia, which is low bone density
Osteoporosis is a silent disease. You might not know you have it until you break a bone. A bone mineral density test is the best way to check your bone health. To keep bones strong, eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, exercise and do not smoke. If needed, medicines can also help.
The pancreas is a large gland behind the stomach and close to the first part of the small intestine. It secretes digestive juices into the small intestine through a tube called the pancreatic duct. The pancreas also releases the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is serious and can lead to complications.
Acute pancreatitis occurs suddenly and usually goes away in a few days with treatment. It is often caused by gallstones. Common symptoms are severe pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment is usually a few days in the hospital for intravenous (IV) fluids, antibiotics, and medicines to relieve pain.
Chronic pancreatitis does not heal or improve. It gets worse over time and leads to permanent damage. The most common cause is heavy alcohol use. Other causes include cystic fibrosis and other inherited disorders, high levels of calcium or fats in the blood, some medicines, and autoimmune conditions. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and oily stools. Treatment may also be a few days in the hospital for intravenous (IV) fluids, medicines to relieve pain, and nutritional support. After that, you may need to start taking enzymes and eat a special diet. It is also important to not smoke or drink alcohol.
Paralysis is the loss of muscle function in part of your body. It happens when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. Paralysis can be complete or partial. It can occur on one or both sides of your body. It can also occur in just one area, or it can be widespread. Paralysis of the lower half of your body, including both legs, is called paraplegia. Paralysis of the arms and legs is quadriplegia.
Most paralysis is due to strokes or injuries such as spinal cord injury or a broken neck. Other causes of paralysis include:
Nerve diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Autoimmune diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome
Bell’s palsy, which affects muscles in the face
Polio used to be a cause of paralysis, but polio no longer occurs in the U.S.
Parasites are microorganisms that live off of other organisms, or hosts, to survive. Some parasites don’t affect the host. Others grow, reproduce, or give off toxins that make the host sick resulting in a parasitic infection.
Parasitic infections are a large problem in tropical and subtropical regions. Malaria is one of the deadliest diseases caused by a parasite. There are also a number of parasitic infections that can occur in the U.S. Trichomoniasis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and toxoplamosis are the most common such infections that occur in the U.S.
Types of Parasitic Infections
Parasitic infections can be caused by three types of organisms: protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. Protozoa are single-celled organisms that can live and multiply inside of humans. Some infections caused by protozoa include giardiasis. This is a serious infection that can happen from drinking water infected with the protozoa. Helminths are multi-celled organisms that can live alone or in humans. These are commonly known as worms and include flatworms, tapeworms, ringworms, and roundworms. Ectoparasites are multi-celled organisms that live in or feed off of the skin of humans, such as mosquitos, fleas, ticks, and mites.
Parasitic infections can be spread in a number of ways. They can be spread through contaminated water, waste, fecal matter, blood, and through food that has been mishandled or undercooked. It can also be passed through sexual contact. Some infections are spread because an insect acts as a vector, or carrier, of the disease and transmits it while feeding on the host. Malaria, which is spread by mosquitos, is one such example.
Debilitating diseases come in many shapes and forms – from those that attack the muscles in our body and affect our physical abilities to those that affect our brain function and impair our thought processes.
People with debilitating diseases face a number of challenges that take an extensive toll on their health and finances. A person’s life can be completely changed in just a few short months as the disease progresses.
Here’s a list of debilitating diseases that significantly change the lives of millions of people:
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
RA is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation in joints and organs throughout the body
This brain disease is a complex mental disorder that makes it difficult for those diagnosed with it to differentiate between reality and imagined experiences, behave normally in social situations, and have normal emotional responses to everyday situations
This disease, caused by the spread of the poliovirus, affects the central nervous system and can lead to partial or full paralysis.
Muscular Dystrophy (MD)
Muscular dystrophies are actually a group of related and inherited disorders that contribute to muscle loss and weakness over time.
There are several different types of cerebral palsy which affect the functions of the brain and nervous system. The cause for this disease is abnormalities or injuries to the brain during fetal development and also can occur up to the age of two years, when brains are still developing.
Chronic Obstructive Pulminary Disease (COPD)
COPDCOPD is a condition which makes it increasingly difficult to breathe due to permanent damage of the lungs and constricting airways, and is often a result of smoking
The cause of this disease stems from a defective gene that causes the creation of thick mucus in the lungs and pancreas, leading to life-threatening breathing problems, lung infections and digestive problems.
This connective tissue disorder and autoimmune disease causes changes in the skin, blood vessels, internal organs and muscles, and can occur solely on the skin level or internally throughout the entire body.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
MS is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, and is more common in women than in men.
This brain disorder leads to bodily tremors and difficulties with movement or controlling functions.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) – Lou Gherig’s Disease
ALS affects the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control voluntary muscle movement, though the core cause is unknown and no cure exists
Alzheimer’s and Dementia
Alzheimer’s Disease is one form of dementia that affects the way people think, behave and remember events in life.
Your throat is a tube that carries food to your esophagus and air to your windpipe and larynx (also called the voice box). The technical name for the throat is pharynx.
You can have a sore throat for many reasons. Often, colds and flu cause sore throats. Other causes can include:
Tonsillitis – an infection in the tonsils
Treatment depends on the cause. Sucking on lozenges, drinking lots of liquids, and gargling may ease the pain. Over-the-counter pain relievers can also help, but children should not take aspirin.
Hemorrhoids are swollen, inflamed veins around the anus or lower rectum. They are either inside the anus or under the skin around the anus. They often result from straining to have a bowel movement. Other factors include pregnancy, aging and chronic constipation or diarrhea.
Hemorrhoids are very common in both men and women. About half of all people have hemorrhoids by age 50. The most common symptom of hemorrhoids inside the anus is bright red blood covering the stool, on toilet paper or in the toilet bowl. Symptoms usually go away within a few days.
If you have rectal bleeding you should see a doctor. You need to make sure bleeding is not from a more serious condition such as colorectal or anal cancer. Treatment may include warm baths and a cream or other medicine. If you have large hemorrhoids, you may need surgery and other treatments.
Hemorrhoids occur when the veins of the rectum or anus become inflamed because of too much straining in the area. Depending on where your hemorrhoids are located, they are considered “internal” or “external.” External hemorrhoids are usually found beneath the skin that surrounds the anus.
Recognizing the Symptoms of External Hemorrhoids
There are a range of symptoms that can affect a person with hemorrhoids. Symptoms tend to vary depending on the severity of your hemorrhoids. Some of the symptoms that you may have include the following:
itching around the anus or rectal area
pain around the anus
lumps near or around the anus
blood in the stool
You may notice bleeding when using the bathroom, such as seeing blood on toilet paper or in the toilet. Lumps around the anus may feel as if they are swollen. These symptoms may also occur because of other conditions. If you think that you may have hemorrhoids, you should schedule an exam with your doctor.
What Are the Causes of External Hemorrhoids?
Hemorrhoids may be caused by a few different factors. The most common cause of hemorrhoids is repeated straining while having a bowel movement. Straining gets in the way of blood flow into and out of the area, which results in pooling of blood and enlargement of the vessels in that area. For the same reason, a severe case of constipation or diarrhea can also cause hemorrhoids. Additionally, pregnant women may be at increased risk of hemorrhoids because of the pressure that the uterus places on these veins.
Premenopause symptoms often appear during the menstrual cycles
Premenopause symptoms are, in general, the ones that accompany women during their menstrual cycles. With different degrees and frequency, most women experience those symptoms, which can also be known as pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS).
Pre Menopause Symptoms
For most women, premenopause symptoms are an every month matter, since such bodily discomforts appear with women’s menstrual periods. Their frequency and intensity, however, might vary. That is why, it is important for women to be in-tune with their body’s typical functions, since any change within them could indicate a serious underlying health issue.
During premenopause, most women present the following symptoms:
The premenopause symptoms mentioned above are the ones most women report to experience; however, the following symptoms have also been described by fewer women:
Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes itchy or sore patches of thick, red skin with silvery scales. You usually get the patches on your elbows, knees, scalp, back, face, palms and feet, but they can show up on other parts of your body. Some people who have psoriasis also get a form of arthritis called psoriatic arthritis.
A problem with your immune system causes psoriasis. In a process called cell turnover, skin cells that grow deep in your skin rise to the surface. Normally, this takes a month. In psoriasis, it happens in just days because your cells rise too fast.
Psoriasis can be hard to diagnose because it can look like other skin diseases. Your doctor might need to look at a small skin sample under a microscope.
Psoriasis can last a long time, even a lifetime. Symptoms come and go. Things that make them worse include:
Psoriasis usually occurs in adults. It sometimes runs in families. Treatments include creams, medicines, and light therapy.
The rectum is the last six inches of the large intestine, also called the colon. The rectum and connects to the anal canal, which leads to the anus which opens to the outside of the body. Because the rectum and colon are both part of the large intestine, many conditions of either are often referred to as colorectal.
Most rectal tumors form inside the lining of the rectum. Tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Tumors that are malignant begin when cells grow in an abnormal fashion.
Types of benign rectal tumors include:
Neoplastic epithelial polyps (premalignant)
Adenomas, most common type – three varieties: tubular (usually found in rectosigmoid), villious (usually found in the rectum and sigmoid), and tubulovillous
Non-neoplastic epithelial polyps
Juvenile polyps (generally found in children under the age of 10)
Peutz-Jeghers’ polyps (result from rare disease called Peutz-Jegher’s syndrome)
Inflammatory polyps, usually occur in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
Types of malignant rectal tumors include:
Aggressive neuroendocrine tumor
Signet Ring Cell Adenocarinoma
When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to work and grow. During a normal day, you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in the U.S. have lung disease. If all types of lung disease are lumped together, it is the number three killer in the United States.
The term lung disease refers to many disorders affecting the lungs, such as asthma, COPD, infections like influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis, lung cancer, and many other breathing problems. Some lung diseases can lead to respiratory failure.
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most common acquired heart disease in children in many countries of the world, especially in developing countries. The global burden of disease caused by rheumatic fever currently falls disproportionately on children living in the developing world, especially where poverty is widespread.
RHD is a chronic heart condition caused by rheumatic fever that can be prevented and controlled. Rheumatic fever is caused by a preceding group A streptococcal (strep) infection. Treating strep throat with antibiotics can prevent rheumatic fever. Moreover, regular antibiotics (usually monthly injections) can prevent patients with rheumatic fever from contracting further strep infections and causing progression of valve damage.
Consequences of rheumatic heart disease
Acute rheumatic fever primarily affects the heart, joints and central nervous system. The major importance of acute rheumatic fever is its ability to cause fibrosis of heart valves, leading to crippling valvular heart disease, heart failure and death.
The decline of rheumatic fever in developed countries is believed to be the result of improved living conditions and availability of antibiotics for treatment of group A streptococcal infection. Overcrowding, poor housing conditions, undernutrition and lack of access to healthcare play a role in the persistence of this disease in developing countries.
Primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever (the prevention of initial attack) is achieved by treatment of acute throat infections caused by group A streptococcus. This is achieved by up to 10 days of an oral antibiotic (usually penicillin) or a single intramuscular penicillin injection.
People who have had a previous attack of rheumatic fever are at high risk for a recurrent attack, which worsens the damage to the heart. Prevention of recurrent attacks of acute rheumatic fever is known as secondary prevention. This involves regular administration of antibiotics, and has to be continued for many years. Secondary prevention programmes are currently thought to be more cost effective for prevention of RHD than primary prevention and may be the only feasible option for low- to middle-income countries in addition to poverty alleviation efforts.
Surgery is often required to repair or replace heart valves in patients with severely damaged valves, the cost of which is very high and a drain on the limited health resources of poor countries.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in your joints. It can affect any joint but is common in the wrist and fingers.
More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is most common in older people. But children and young adults can also get it. You might have the disease for only a short time, or symptoms might come and go. The severe form can last a lifetime.
Rheumatoid arthritis is different from osteoarthritis, the common arthritis that often comes with older age. RA can affect body parts besides joints, such as your eyes, mouth and lungs. RA is an autoimmune disease, which means the arthritis results from your immune system attacking your body’s own tissues.
No one knows what causes rheumatoid arthritis. Genes, environment and hormones might contribute. Treatments include medicine, lifestyle changes and surgery. These can slow or stop joint damage and reduce pain and swelling.
Scurvy is a disease that occurs when you have a severe lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in your diet. Scurvy causes general weakness, anemia, gum disease, and skin hemorrhages.
Vitamin C deficiency; Deficiency – vitamin C; Scorbutus
When you’re short of breath, it’s hard or uncomfortable for you to take in the oxygen your body needs. You may feel as if you’re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. But shortness of breath can also be a sign of a serious disease.
Many conditions can make you feel short of breath. Lung conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part of your airway system. Heart disease can make you feel breathless if your heart cannot pump enough blood to supply oxygen to your body. Stress caused by anxiety can also make it hard for you to breathe. If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.
Sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses. It occurs as the result of an infection from a virus, bacteria, or fungus.
The sinuses are air-filled spaces in the skull. They are located behind the forehead, nasal bones, cheeks, and eyes. Healthy sinuses contain no bacteria or other germs. Most of the time, mucus is able to drain out and air is able to flow through the sinuses.
When the sinus openings become blocked or too much mucus builds up, bacteria and other germs can grow more easily.
Sinusitis can occur from one of these conditions:
Small hairs (cilia) in the sinuses fail to properly to move mucus out. This may be due to some medical conditions.
Colds and allergies may cause too much mucus to be made or block the opening of the sinuses.
A deviated nasal septum, nasal bone spur, or nasal polyps may block the opening of the sinuses.
There are two types of sinusitis:
Acute sinusitis is when symptoms are present for 4 weeks or less. It is caused by bacteria growing in the sinuses.
Chronic sinusitis is when swelling and inflammation of the sinuses are present for longer than 3 months. It may be caused by bacteria or a fungus.
The following may increase the risk that an adult or child will develop sinusitis:
Allergic rhinitis or hay fever
Going to day care
Diseases that prevent the cilia from working properly
Changes in altitude (flying or scuba diving)
Weakened immune system from HIV or chemotherapy
A rash is an area of irritated or swollen skin. Many rashes are itchy, red, painful, and irritated. Some rashes can also lead to blisters or patches of raw skin. Rashes are a symptom of many different medical problems. Other causes include irritating substances and allergies. Certain genes can make people more likely to get rashes.
Contact dermatitis is a common type of rash. It causes redness, itching, and sometimes small bumps. You get the rash where you have touched an irritant, such as a chemical, or something you are allergic to, like poison ivy.
Some rashes develop right away. Others form over several days. Although most rashes clear up fairly quickly, others are long-lasting and need long-term treatment.
Because rashes can be caused by many different things, it’s important to figure out what kind you have before you treat it. If it is a bad rash, if it does not go away, or if you have other symptoms, you should see your health care provider. Treatments may include moisturizers, lotions, baths, cortisone creams that relieve swelling, and antihistamines, which relieve itching.
A skin ulcer is an open wound on the skin. It could be caused by a health problem such as infection, by a pressure sore, or by vein problems (venous skin ulcers). Treatments will depend on the cause of the ulcer. Follow the links below to find WebMD’s comprehensive coverage about how skin ulcers are caused, signs of a skin ulcer, skin ulcer treatments, and much more.
Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back and forth between your body and your brain. It is protected by your vertebrae, which are the bone disks that make up your spine. If you have an accident that damages the vertebrae or other parts of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include
- Infections such as meningitis and polio
- Inflammatory diseases
- Autoimmune diseases
- Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy
Symptoms vary but might include pain, numbness, loss of sensation and muscle weakness. These symptoms can occur around the spinal cord, and also in other areas such as your arms and legs. Treatments often include medicines and surgery.
A stroke is a medical emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. “Mini-strokes” or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted.
Symptoms of stroke are:
Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg (especially on one side of the body)
Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech
Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
Sudden severe headache with no known cause
If you have any of these symptoms, you must get to a hospital quickly to begin treatment. Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is happening by quickly dissolving the blood clot or by stopping the bleeding. Post-stroke rehabilitation helps individuals overcome disabilities that result from stroke damage. Drug therapy with blood thinners is the most common treatment for stroke.
If you have lupus, your immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues by mistake. This can damage your joints, skin, blood vessels and organs. There are many kinds of lupus. The most common type, systemic lupus erythematosus, affects many parts of the body. Discoid lupus causes a rash that doesn’t go away. Subacute cutaneous lupus causes sores after being out in the sun. Another type can be caused by medication. Neonatal lupus, which is rare, affects newborns.
Anyone can get lupus, but women are most at risk. Lupus is also more common in African American, Hispanic, Asian and Native American women. The cause of lupus is not known.
Lupus has many symptoms. Some common ones are
Joint pain or swelling
Fever with no known cause
Red rashes, often on the face (also called the “butterfly rash”)
There is no one test to diagnose lupus, and it may take months or years to make the diagnosis. There is no cure for lupus, but medicines and lifestyle changes can help control it.
Tendons are flexible bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. They help your muscles move your bones. Tendinitis is the severe swelling of a tendon.
Tendinitis usually happens after repeated injury to an area such as the wrist or ankle. It causes pain and soreness around a joint. Some common forms of tendinitis are named after the sports that increase their risk. They include tennis elbow, golfer’s elbow, pitcher’s shoulder, swimmer’s shoulder, and jumper’s knee.
Doctors diagnose tendinitis with your medical history, a physical exam, and imaging tests. The first step in treatment is to reduce pain and swelling. Rest, wrapping or elevating the affected area, and medicines can help. Ice is helpful for recent, severe injuries. Other treatments include ultrasound, physical therapy, steroid injections, and surgery.
Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot in a blood vessel. The vessel may be any vein or artery as, for example, in a deep vein thrombosis or a coronary (artery) thrombosis. The clot itself is termed a thrombus. If the clot breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream, it is a thromboembolism. Thrombosis, thrombus, and the prefix thrombo- all come from the Greek thrombos meaning a lump or clump, or a curd or clot of milk.
Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It is one of your endocrine glands, which make hormones. The thyroid helps set your metabolism – how your body gets energy from the foods you eat.
Millions of people in the U.S. have thyroid diseases. Most of them are women. If you have a thyroid disease, your body uses energy more slowly or quickly than it should. A thyroid gland that is not active enough, called hypothyroidism, is far more common. It can make you gain weight, feel fatigued and have difficulty dealing with cold temperatures. If your thyroid is too active, it makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs. That condition is hyperthyroidism. Too much thyroid hormone can make you lose weight, speed up your heart rate and make you very sensitive to heat.
There are many causes for both conditions. Treatment involves trying to reset your body’s metabolism to a normal rate.
Tinnitus is often described as a ringing in the ears. It also can sound like roaring, clicking, hissing, or buzzing. It may be soft or loud, high pitched or low pitched. You might hear it in either one or both ears.
Millions of Americans have tinnitus. People with severe tinnitus may have trouble hearing, working or even sleeping.
Causes of tinnitus include:
Hearing loss in older people
Exposure to loud noises
Ear and sinus infections
Heart or blood vessel problems
Hormonal changes in women
Treatment depends on the cause. Treatments may include hearing aids, sound-masking devices, medicines, and ways to learn how to cope with the noise.
Your tonsils and adenoids are part of your lymphatic system. Your tonsils are in the back of your throat. Your adenoids are higher up, behind your nose. Both help protect you from infection by trapping germs coming in through your mouth and nose.
Sometimes your tonsils and adenoids become infected. Tonsillitis makes your tonsils sore and swollen and causes a sore throat. Enlarged adenoids can be sore, make it hard to breathe and cause ear problems.
The first treatment for infected tonsils and adenoids is antibiotics. If you have frequent infections or trouble breathing, you may need surgery. Surgery to remove the tonsils is tonsillectomy. Surgery to remove adenoids is adenoidectomy.
Acidosis is excessive blood acidity caused by an overabundance of acid in the blood or a loss of bicarbonate from the blood (metabolic acidosis), or by a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood that results from poor lung function or slow breathing (respiratory acidosis).
Blood acidity increases when people ingest substances that contain or produce acid or when the lungs do not expel enough carbon dioxide.
People with metabolic acidosis have nausea, vomiting, and fatigue and may breathe faster and deeper than normal.
People with respiratory acidosis have headache and confusion, and breathing may appear shallow, slow, or both.
Tests on blood samples show there is too much acid.
Doctors treat the cause of the acidosis.
If an increase in acid overwhelms the body’s pH buffering systems, the blood will become acidic. As blood pH drops, the parts of the brain that regulate breathing are stimulated to produce faster and deeper breathing. Breathing faster and deeper increases the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled.
The kidneys also try to compensate by excreting more acid in the urine. However, both mechanisms can be overwhelmed if the body continues to produce too much acid, leading to severe acidosis and eventually coma.
Toxins are substances created by plants and animals that are poisonous to humans. Toxins also include medications that are helpful in small doses, but poisonous when used in large amounts.
Most toxins that cause problems in humans are released by germs such as bacteria. For example, cholera is due to a bacterial toxin.
Other toxins that cause problems include metals, such as lead, and organic chemicals in the environment.
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a small organism called Trichomonas vaginalis. Women are most often affected by this disease, although men can become infected and pass the infection to their partners through sexual contact.
Trichomoniasis is the most common curable STD in young, sexually active women. An estimated 7.4 million new cases occur each year in women and men.
Men often do not have symptoms of trichomoniasis and usually do not know they are infected until their partners need treatment. But when symptoms do occur, they include:
Irritation inside the penis
Slight burning after urination or ejaculation
Many women do have signs or symptoms of infection. Symptoms in women can include:
Greenish-yellow, frothy vaginal discharge with a strong odor
Vaginal itching and irritation
Discomfort during intercourse
Lower abdominal pain (rare)
Symptoms usually appear within five to 28 days of exposure in women.
How Is Trichomoniasis Treated?
Usually an oral antibiotic called metronidazole (Flagyl) is given to treat trichomoniasis. Before taking this drug, it is very important to let your doctor know if there is any chance that you could be pregnant, because the drug could harm the baby.
Your partner should also be treated at the same time to prevent reinfection and further spread of the disease. In addition, persons being treated for trichomoniasis should avoid sex until they and their sex partners complete treatment and have no symptoms. It is important to take all of your antibiotics, even if you feel better.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining of the rectum and colon. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease.
UC can happen at any age, but it usually starts between the ages of 15 and 30. It tends to run in families. The most common symptoms are pain in the abdomen and blood or pus in diarrhea. Other symptoms may include
Loss of appetite
Bleeding from the rectum
Sores on the skin
Growth failure in children
About half of people with UC have mild symptoms.
Doctors use blood tests, stool tests, colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, and imaging tests to diagnose UC. Several types of drugs can help control it. Some people have long periods of remission, when they are free of symptoms. In severe cases, doctors must remove the colon.
Do you know if your current weight is healthy? “Underweight”, “normal”, “overweight”, and “obese” are all labels for ranges of weight. Obese and overweight mean that your weight is greater than it should be for your health. Underweight means that it is lower than it should be for your health. Your healthy body weight depends on your sex and height. For children, it also depends on your age.
A sudden, unexpected change in weight can be a sign of a medical problem. Causes for sudden weight loss can include
Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease.
Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.
Food provides the energy and nutrients you need to be healthy. If you don’t get enough nutrients — including proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals – you may suffer from malnutrition.
Causes of malnutrition include:
Lack of specific nutrients in your diet. Even the lack of one vitamin can lead to malnutrition.
An unbalanced diet
Certain medical problems, such as malabsorption syndromes and cancers
Symptoms may include fatigue, dizziness, and weight loss. Or, you may have no symptoms. To diagnose the cause of the problem, your doctor may do blood tests and a nutritional assessment. Treatment may include replacing the missing nutrients and treating the underlying cause.
Urethritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the body.
Urethritis may be caused by bacteria or a virus. The same bacteria that cause urinary tract infections (E. coli) and some sexually transmitted diseases (chlamydia, gonorrhea) can lead to urethritis. Viral causes of urethritis include herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus.
Other causes include:
Sensitivity to the chemicals used in spermicides or contraceptive jellies, creams, or foams
Risks for urethritis include:
Being a female in the reproductive years
Being male, ages 20 – 35
Having many sexual partners
High-risk sexual behavior (such as anal sex without a condom)
History of sexually transmitted diseases
Blood in the urine or semen
Burning pain while urinating (dysuria)
Discharge from penis
Frequent or urgent urination
Itching, tenderness, or swelling in penis or groin area
Pain with intercourse or ejaculation
Burning pain while urinating
Fever and chills
Frequent or urgent urination
Symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning, pain and discharge are some of the most common reasons that women seek medical care. Often, the problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. In women of childbearing age, the most common cause is a bacterial infection. The main symptom is a smelly vaginal discharge, but some women have no symptoms. The treatment is antibiotics.
Other infections that can cause vaginitis include trichomoniasis and yeast infections. Some other causes of vaginal symptoms, including vaginal bleeding, are sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal cancer and vulvar cancer.
Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin. They usually occur in the legs, but also can form in other parts of the body. Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose vein.
Your veins have one-way valves that help keep blood flowing toward your heart. If the valves are weak or damaged, blood can back up and pool in your veins. This causes the veins to swell, which can lead to varicose veins.
Varicose veins are very common. You are more at risk if you are older, a female, obese, don’t exercise or have a family history. They can also be more common in pregnancy.
Doctors often diagnose varicose veins from a physical exam. Sometimes you may need additional tests.
Exercising, losing weight, elevating your legs when resting, and not crossing them when sitting can help keep varicose veins from getting worse. Wearing loose clothing and avoiding long periods of standing can also help. If varicose veins are painful or you don’t like the way they look, your doctor may recommend procedures to remove them.
When you’re dizzy, you may feel lightheaded or lose your balance. If you feel that the room is spinning, you have vertigo.
A sudden drop in blood pressure or being dehydrated can make you dizzy. Many people feel lightheaded if they get up too quickly from sitting or lying down.
Dizziness usually gets better by itself or is easily treated. However, it can be a symptom of other disorders. Medicines may cause dizziness, or problems with your ear. Motion sickness can also make you dizzy. There are many other causes.
Leg weakness can occur as part of a generalized feeling of weakness all over your body, or it may develop in one or both legs. True weakness occurs when the muscles lose their strength, but people often perceive that their muscles are weak when they feel ill or tired. In these cases there is not a true loss of muscle function. The sudden onset of muscle weakness can be a sign of stroke, a potentially life-threatening condition in which part of the brain is deprived of oxygen.
This article focuses on conditions that cause a true loss of strength in the leg muscles. Among the most common causes for leg weakness is sciatica, problems with the spinal cord that lead to pinching or compression of the nerves as they exit the spinal cord through the holes between the vertebrae of the backbone. Sciatica may be caused by various conditions. In addition to weakness in one part of the arm or leg, other symptoms such as tingling, burning or pain may occur.
Neuromuscular diseases, such as myasthenia gravis (autoimmune neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness) and multiple sclerosis (disease that affects the brain and spinal cord causing weakness, coordination, balance difficulties, and other problems), are other causes for muscle weakness that can occur in the legs. Toxins such as botulinum toxin and certain medications can also cause muscle weakness.
Leg weakness of sudden onset can be a sign of stroke, a potentially life-threatening situation. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) for leg weakness that comes on suddenly, particularly if it is felt on one side of the body or is accompanied by any serious symptoms, including blurred vision or double vision, loss of vision, or changes in vision; numbness; paralysis or inability to move a body part; severe headache; high fever (higher than 101 degrees Fahrenheit); loss of bladder or bowel control; fainting or change in level of consciousness; or lethargy.